Artist’s rendering of Fort Christina as seen from
out in the river downstream at about 1654. It is
based on Lindeström’s map. This was about a year
before the Dutch invasion.
The wedding of Johan Anderson Stålkofta and
Christina Carlsdaughter probably took place in the
big red house inside the fort about one year after
the Dutch invasion.
Watercolor painting by Roslyn Etheridge Stallcup, 2008
Prints of the painting and note cards featuring this artwork are available
at the New Sweden Centre Museum at the Kalmar Nyckle Shipyard in
is where young Johan Anderson von Strängnäs, at about age thirteen, landed
in the New Sweden Colony in 1641 after a five months voyage from Sweden
aboard the ship
He was to live the rest of his life in or near this fort. At one point he
even owned the fort and all of the land surrounding it.
The Stalcop family is an
The Stalcop family originated in America. The founder of the family
came to America, alone, as a young boy. He married in America and
all of his children were born in America. His children adopted his
original, uniquely formed, nickname as their own American surname
more than forty years after his arrival.
The Stalcop family is a single-family unit. All lineal members of
the family are directly related to every other lineal member of the
family. This is because every Stalcop, regardless of how they spell
the name, can trace their lineage directly back to the founder and
his wife, the parents of all Stalcops everywhere.
The Stalcop surname has never existed in Europe.
The surname ‘Stalcop’ has no meaning. It is simply the phonetically
spelled equivalent of the sound of our founder's nickname as it
passed from his original language through Dutch on into English.
Since there are no European families with the Stalcop surname it
follows that there can be no other person entering this country at
any time whatsoever to confuse the family lineage. There is no
coat-of-arms, no kings, knights, barons counts or earls, and no
family crest. These things, quite simply, have never existed in the
Stalcop family. On the other hand it ensures that the Stalcop family
is truly an All-American, single-family unit.
In late 1640 a young Swedish boy took a job to become a tobacco
farmer in a far off land in the colony of New Sweden. Five years
after his 1641 arrival in the New Sweden colony this farm boy became
a soldier in the service of The South Company, and therefore Queen
Christina of Sweden. His name was Johan Andersson från Strängnäs or
John, the son of Anders from Strängnäs, Sweden. His nickname, first
appearing in the records in 1648 some two years after he became a
soldier was Stålkofta [pronounced “Stalcop”], the STEELCOAT.
The Stalcop Family surname clearly originated from Johan Andersson's
nickname which itself is composed of two Swedish words; 'stål' or
ståhl', meaning 'steel', and 'kofta', meaning 'jacket' or 'short
coat'. The name is usually translated as ‘the steelcoat’.
In Sweden a “stålkofta” was the name applied to an overshirt made of
chain mail; that is, made of small interlocking steel rings. Chain
mail was hand made, ring-by-ring, to fit the owner and therefore it
was nearly prohibitively expensive. Contrary to what is seen in
movies very few examples of it were made.
stålkofta from the period
The early records of
Johan Andersson, alias 'Stålkofta', are foggy at best.
There are several reasons for this. One is that most of the
surviving records are scattered, both in America and in Europe and
are written in several languages; Dutch, Swedish, Latin and English
and even a few in German. Some of these may never have been
translated. The main reason, however, is that there were more than
one person in the colony with the same name. At least two were Dutch
and perhaps as many as seven were Swedish or Finnish.
It is clear the 'lad' or 'boy' onboard the ship CHARITAS when it
arrived in 1641 was from Strängnäs and had been hired by Mans Kling,
an agent for the Swedish Government, to be a farm hand. The
passenger list for the CHARITAS includes 35 people. Following the
name of Johan Andersson is this notation;
shall have a salary of 10 R.D. a year and he received 10 D.
Copper money on departing."
There are at least two
additional sources of positive information on the matter. One is "Rulle
der Völcker So in New Schweden den 1 Marty Anno 1648", the 1648
Roll List of the South Company. This is a listing of all adult male
inhabitants of New Sweden as of March 1, 1648, listed in the order
of their arrival. The roll list has this to say:
Andersson, ist von dito Klingh in Anno 1641 vor ein Knecht zum
ackerbaw angenomen, und her nach zum Solldaten verordnet."
first hired by Måns Kling in 1641 to serve as a farm hand, and he
later became a soldier.
The second source is "Monat Gelder Buch". This was Governor
Printz's monthly account book. This book lists the people, including
soldiers, in the employ of Printz during his tenure as governor. The
Monat Gelder Buch, or monthly account book has a continuous record
of our him and includes this final entry for him:
Anderson von Strengnis Soldat, Anno 1646 prima October
biss 1653 prima Septemb."
Johan Anderson from
Strängnäs served as a soldier from 1 October 1646, to 1 September
1653. This account book consistently refers to our ancestor as "Johan
Anderson from Strängnäs".
Now we have a nearly continuous record of Johan Andersson
Stålkofta from his hiring as a young lad in Strängnäs, Sweden,
until his death.
Johan Andersson joined the military detachment of the colony
in 1646, serving alongside an older Johan Andersson, Soldat,
This is probably the reason he adopted his nickname. The military
detachment was tiny by today’s standards so there had to be some way
to distinguish between the two men. Two years later (1648) when the
older Johan Andersson, Soldat, left the colony and returned
to Sweden the use of the nickname for our Johan Andersson had
become so prevalent that it was continued even after the reason for
its use had been removed.
His Stålkofta, steeljacket or steelcoat, nickname must have
been a reference to plate armor worn by our ancestor. Armor had all
but disappeared by this time. It was heavy, uncomfortable,
cumbersome and largely ineffective against weapons of the day.
Certain military men, however, found it useful to continue to use a
portion of such armor. These were the men who fired cannons. The
armor protected them from the powder flash when these heavy guns
were fired. Gunners often developed the habit of wearing this
particular piece of armor most of the time. It is probable the
wearing of breastplate armor by our Johan Andersson is the
basis for his Stålkofta, or "The steelcoat" nickname. He was
trained as a Gunner. The English from Jamestown in Virginia imported
plate armor in large quantities as a trade item for the Indians. It
is probably that Johan Andersson obtained it from one of the
In 1651 the Dutch under Peter Stuyvesant sent a fleet of eleven
ships, all armed but four of the ships being warships they were very
heavily armed and each carrying soldiers, down the Atlantic coast
and back up the South River past Fort Elfsborg, past Fort Christina
and Tinicum Island to Fort Nassau. Stuyvesant marched overland at
the head of a column of another120 men to meet the ships at Fort
Nassau. The fleet loaded the additional men then about a week after
sailing up the river sailed back down the river past Tinicum and
Fort Christina with flags, banners and streamers flying, drummers
beating at the rails and a continuous booming of salutes being fired
from the guns of all ships. All accounts say it was quite a loud and
colorful spectacle. It made several back and forth circuits up and
down the river. It is sometimes known as the Dutch Water Circus.
Stuyvesant needed an excuse to justify an invasion and military
occupation of the New Sweden territory. He was trying to provoke
Governor Printz into committing a military clash by firing on the
Governor Printz was taken by surprise when the Dutch fleet sailed
northward on its way to Fort Nassau. He immediately called all of
his men to Tinicum including the garrisons of forts Christina,
Korsham and Elfsborg. When the Dutch fleet sailed back down the
river about a week later it had all of its colorful flags flying and
making all of that noise Printz loaded his entire military force,
about thirty men, into his little yacht rigged vessel and trailed
the Dutch fleet at a discreet distance. Our Johan Andersson
Stålkofta, without doubt, was one of the thirty men riding on
the yacht with Governor Printz.
When this initial enticement scheme failed to provoke an attack
Stuyvesant proceeded with the next step in his plan of provocation.
The Dutch landed and erected a fort at Sandhucken (Sand Hook); the
spot were the town of New Castle now stands.
This new fort, Fort Cassimir, was only five miles south of Fort
Christina. Upon completion Stuyvesant sent nine of the ships and the
soldiers back to New Amsterdam. He left two ships on guard to patrol
and disrupt Swedish boat traffic on the river until winter set in.
He also left men to garrison the new fort. Fort Cassimir, rather
than the Dutch fleet, now became the bait in Stuyvesant’s trap.
Fort Cassimir and the patrolling Dutch ships cut direct
communications between Fort Christina and Fort Elfsborg, fifteen
miles down river and over on the opposite (east) shore. Printz was
force to abandon Fort Elfsborg. He sent a working party overland to
prepare the fort for abandonment. This included hiding the guns so
the Dutch could not find them. After hiding the guns he abandoned
the fort by simply not sending the garrison back to reactivate it.
All of these problems apparently became more than Printz could
stand. Printz had been promised to be relieved as Governor after
three years service. He had been Governor of New Sweden for nine
years with little or no support from the homeland. In September 1653
Printz resigned his post as Governor and returned to Sweden.
Because of illness Printz was confined to a sick bed in the
Netherlands. Future Governor Risingh sailed past without the two
seeing each other. After the ship Örnen (Eagle) entered the South
River it anchored for the night off the abandoned Fort Elfsborg. The
next morning Risingh disregarded all of his orders and in direct
violation of those orders he assumed complete military command. This
act against his direct orders must be considered as a coup.
Risingh then ordered the captain of the ship to sail the Örnen up to
the Dutch fort, anchor it directly under the fort’s guns, and fire a
salute. The Dutch did not return the salute nor fire on the ship.
Next Risingh ordered Captain Swen Skute ashore to demand the
surrender of the fort claiming it was standing on Swedish ground.
The Dutch commander delayed longer than Risingh thought necessary so
he fired a second salute and landed three files of musketeers, about
30 men, and deployed them in preparation for storming the fort.
Seeing Risingh do this the Dutch commander surrendered the fort
without a struggle. The muskets of seven of his nine soldiers were
with the gunsmith being repaired and the Dutch fort had not been
supplied with sufficient gunpowder or any 12-pound cannonballs to
fire from its dozen cannons.
These foolish acts by Risingh proved to be the trigger that sprang
the trap Stuyvesant had set with his loud and colorful water circus
and fort building project of 1651. Risingh gave the Dutch the very
excuse they needed to justify the total conquest of New Sweden.
About three months after the capture of Fort Cassimir Stuyvesant
sent a letter to Risingh informing him that the Dutch intended to
come to the South River and reclaim the entirety of New Sweden. This
letter set the stage for a dramatic event in the life of Johan
Anderson Stålkofta during the Dutch invasion of 1655.
Johan Andersson held a specific title as a military officer,
that of Constaple or Gunnery Sergeant.
1653, when preparations were on foot for the sending of a new
expedition to New Sweden, a tentative budget was made. The
salaries and wages of the officers........and fifty soldiers
were estimated at 3,722 R.D. A budget was also drawn up for
one hundred and fifty lanspeople, skilled workmen and
peasants, with wages amounting to 1,200 R.D. This list was
completed before the sailing of the HAJ and when Hook and
Elswick arrived in the colony, the staff of military officers
with their salaries was as follows: . . . . .
. . . . .Constaple, Johan Andersson Stålkofta, 144D. .
He was the eighth person
named on a list of just fifteen people beginning with the Director,
Johan Rising. The title of “Constaple”, means that he had been
promoted. His salary had been dramatically increased as well.
Risingh had been ordered to keep a Journal during his tenure as
Governor. Our ancestor is mentioned in it quite often.
In the meanwhile the Swedes were planning to build a small town near
Fort Christina. This was to be called Christinaham or simply
Christina. Stålkofta was heavily involved in the undertaking.
summer and autumn of 1654 provisions were made for carrying
out certain paragraphs of the instructions and memorials
regarding the internal affairs of the colony. Towards the end
of July several new appointments were made, the gunner, Johan
Stalkofta, being commissioned to 'prepare material and planks
for the buildings that were to be erected from time to time."
"In the autumn the lots were more accurately measured off and
plans were projected for the building of a town 'since there
was very little room in the fortress.' Several men were
appointed to 'cut pine timber on the eastern bank' of the
Delaware almost opposite Tinicum Island, under the direction
of Johan Stalkofta 'and later they brought a little timber
raft to Fort Christina."
Peter Stuyvesant and the
Dutch set about quietly to assemble a tremendous military force. A
number of the Swedish settlers, on business in New Amsterdam, had
observed these military preparations. They told Governor Risingh
what they had seen.
Finally the Dutch felt they were ready to return and take control of
New Sweden and the South River for good. In August 1655 Stuyvesant
set sail from Manhattan with between 300 and 350 soldiers plus about
an equal number of sailors in seven armed ships, with one being a
heavily armed warship. This force was smaller than the 1651 water
circus but was still on the order of ten times the size of the
military forces of Governor Risingh and the Swedes.
The Indians informed Risingh about the departure of the Dutch
expedition as soon as it sailed. Acting on this information Risingh
made another of his strange decisions. He split his forces and sent
Lt. Swen Skute with men to activate Fort Trinity. Johan Stalkofta
was among the officers sent with Swen Skute. He is listed as fourth
in command. The force totaled about 37 men, including Freemen
At this moment the men of Fort Trinity, including the commander,
Captain Swen Skute, had no idea of the overwhelming size of the
Dutch force being hurled at them. Risingh did not tell them.
Contrary to some assumptions the fleet probably was not actually
sighted from Fort Trinity until it rounded the last bend in the
river early in the morning of August 31, 1655. In about twenty
minutes or less the Dutch ships began passing the fort. They were
riding the current of an inbound tide.
Skute’s orders were specific about when he should fire on the Dutch
and the circumstances did not match his orders. Faced with the
overwhelming size of the Dutch force and the dangerous timber fort
Captain Skute knew it would be instant suicide for all of his men if
he did. He went out and met with Stuyvesant and after an overnight
delay they agreed to a surrender. During the night Skute receive an
order from Risingh telling him to surrender if the situation was
hopeless. Suddenly and dramatically, on the morning of September 1,
1655, Johan Anderson Stålkofta found himself captured by
Peter Stuyvesant and the Dutch. Commandant Swen Skute and his
officers, including our Stålkofta, were placed under arrest
and held in Fort Cassimir. The rest of the soldiers were put aboard
a Dutch ship and sent to New Amsterdam. Governor Risingh surrendered
the whole of the New Sweden Colony at Fort Christina two weeks
Christina Carlsdotter arrived on the last ship sent from Sweden in
support of the Colony. Due to the slow speed of communications the
ship arrived about six months after the Colony had already fallen.
She married Johan Anderson Stålkofta about six months after
she arrived in New Sweden. Their wedding marked the beginning of the
Stalcop Family in America.
of 1656, six months after the surrender of the Colony, Jean Paul Jacquet,
Dutch commander at Fort Cassimir sent a letter to Peter Stuyvesant
reporting the arrival of the ship Mercurius with 130
passengers and asked for instructions. The Mercurius had
sailed from Sweden before news of the loss of the Colony was
received. The English trader, Isaac Allerton, carried the letter to
New Amsterdam along with a letter from Johan Papegoja, the commander
of the passengers who ask Stuyvesant for permission to land the
passengers and cargo. The two letters arrived on March 18 and
prompted an emergency meeting of Stuyvesant’s Council. The Council
sent orders that the Mercurius
should be sent back to Sweden without leaving any passengers or
cargo on the South [now the Delaware] River.
Huygen traveled overland to New Amsterdam and made a plea to change
the Council's mind. Arriving on April 1, he urged Stuyvesant to
allow the passengers to join the colonists but the Council still
refused. The ship and all of its passengers and cargo must leave the
South River promptly. Huygen thereupon agreed that he would
personally order the Mercurius to sail to New Amsterdam with
all of its passengers and cargo and gave his personal bond to remain
in Manhattan until the ship arrived.
consulted were the local native Indians, the Lanape, later called
the Delaware Indians by the English. Papegoja wrote, “we decided to
set sail for Manhattan. But as soon as the savages or Indians
observed this they collected speedily in great numbers, came down to
us and reminded us of the former friendship and love which they had
for us Swedes, above all other nations, and said that they would
destroy and exterminate both Swedes and Hollanders, unless we
remained and traded as in the past. Then all our Swedes, who feared
the savages, came to us also and protested strongly against us
leaving, saying that we would be the cause of their destruction if
we departed.” Papegoja
ordered the ship to turn around and sail upriver. The passengers,
with their belongings, landed at Tinicum Island.
One of the
passengers, Anders Bengtsson, later wrote, “the Dutch forbade the
ship to travel up the river, would have ignominiously sent it back,
if the heathens (who loved the Swedes) had not gathered together,
went on board, and defiantly brought it up past the [Dutch] fort.”
“some mishap” between the Dutch and the Swedes or Indians reached
New Amsterdam by April 28. Stuyvesant dispatched soldiers overland
to the South River to determine what had happened to the
Mercurius. Five days later Andreas Hudden returned to Manhattan
from Fort Cassimir carrying a report from Jacquet regarding the
behavior of the Swedes and Indians on the South River. The report
said the Mercurius, contrary to orders, had sailed up above
Fort Cassimir to Tinicum Island and had landed passengers there.
From the accounts of witnesses, the Council found that the incident
was “caused by the obstruction of some Swedes and Finns, joined by
some savages, coming on board with Papegoja and remaining on board
in a large number until the said ship had passed Fort Casimir,” and
that “some of the principal men of the Swedes were at the bottom of
it and that also most of the other Swedes, who had taken the oath of
loyalty [to Stuyvesant], had been stirred up or misled.” The Council
absolved the captain and crew of the Mercurius and Hendrick
Huygen from any responsibility for this disobedience. It should be
noted that the Indians hated the Dutch and the Dutch in turn feared
the Indians. It was decided that Hendrick Huygen and Stuyvesant's
own representatives should promptly go to the South River and
negotiate a peaceful settlement.
turn-around. The settlement agreement is not on record but the
contents can be inferred. The Mercurius passengers were
permitted to remain. Huygen was permitted to trade the ship's cargo
for a return cargo of tobacco; the Mercurius would have safe
passage. On July 1 Huygen agreed to pay 750 guilders as duty for the
cargo on the Mercurius, by then anchored at New Amsterdam,
and the ship sailed with its cargo of tobacco arriving back in
Sweden September 6. The agreement also called for the establishment
of a quasi-independent “Swedish Nation”, subject to oversight by the
Dutch, having its own court, its own militia and its own churches,
with jurisdiction over the area north of the Christina River.
4, the officials of the new “Swedish Nation” appeared at Fort
Cassimir to be sworn in. The first appointments were Gregorius van
Dyck as sheriff; Olof Petersson Stille, Mats Hansson
(from Borgå, Finland), Peter Larsson Cock and Peter Gunnarsson Rambo
as magistrates; Sven Skute as captain of the militia; Anders Larsson
Dalbo as lieutenant; and Jacob Svensson as ensign.
passengers arriving on the Mercurius was Carl Jönsson
who departed Sweden with his wife, three daughters and a maid. He
eventually settled at Marcus Hook about 1663 where he lived for
twenty years. He apparently moved over on the east side of the river
about 1683. The last discovered record of him was when he witnessed
the will of Timen Stiddem on February 1, 1694/5. His daughters
included Christina Carlsdaughter, soon to be the wife of Johan
Andersson Stålkofta. Carl Jönsson left no male heirs.
Christina’s late arrival had profound influences. It created both
the Swedish Nation and the Stalcop Family. Two moments in this
episode could have easily prevented either event entirely. Had the
news of the loss of the Colony arrived in Sweden a little sooner the
Mercurius probably would not have sailed and the Swedish
Nation would never have come into being. Had the ship been forced to
sail away without landing the passengers then Christina
Carlsdaughter and Johan Andersson Stålkofta probably would never
have met and begin the Stalcop Family.
JOHAN ANDERSSON STÅLKOFTA’S SIGNATURE DISCOVERED
The New York State Archives made recently digital
images of two very important documents available to Larry Stallcup.
One is an extremely important artifact to the Stalcop family.
The first is a report to Peter Stuyvesant’s Council in New
Amsterdam (New York) concerning events and conditions in the
Swedish Nation, also known as the Colony of The Company. This was
the former Colony of New Sweden. The Vice-Director, Willem
Beeckman, wrote the report. It served to forward a request for a
patent (deed) for a gristmill and is written in Dutch. The
petition it forwarded also is also written in Dutch and was likely
written out by a notary. A translation of the petition is found in
book, New York Historical Manuscripts-Dutch, as document 19:28 and
is shown below. The forwarding letter, in NYHM-Dutch, is document
19:27. It contains the background of the mill request.
Document 19:27, the forwarding report, has been abridged and only
the last two paragraphs are shown translated here.
|The reference to
the Company is the Dutch West India Company. They operated the
Dutch New Netherlands Company headquartered at New Amsterdam (New
York). The reference to “sewant” is to Native American money. It
was long strings or belts of beads made from Guahog clamshells. It
is probably better known today as “wampum”. The Dutch mile used
here was approximately 5.8 kilometers or about 3 statue miles. The
old Swedish mill was located about 18 miles north from Fort Altena
(formally Fort Christina). This was about a days walk in both
directions. Much quicker trip by boat. The horse mill in New
Amstel, now New Castle, Delaware, was about 5 miles south of Fort
Altena. The horse mill to the south was under the control of the
Colony of the City. At times there was very little cooperation
between the two Dutch Colonies. The ½ hour walking time up
Shellpot Creek bank to the new mill probably indicated a distance
of about one mile, especially since the Brandywine Creek had to be
crossed at the start. Probably all of the trip to the new mill
could be made by small boat.
|This petition is
extremely important to the Stalcop Family. Not only does it
document a business adventure of the primogenitor, it also
contains his signature, written by his own hand in May of 1662. It
is the only known surviving example of his signature. It is not
known exactly when the three partners signed the petition but it
was most like sometime between May 1st and May 10th, 1662.
|Notice that he
used the Dutch spelling, “Staelcop”, rather than the Swedish
spelling, “Stålkofta”, when signing. He probably did that to match
how his name was spelled in the body of the petition. But he used
“Johan” rather than the Dutch “Jan” for his given name.
These two documents also define the first known privately owned
commercial business venture within the former New Sweden Colony
begun by Swedish colonist. The three partners did not operate the
mill themselves but had a hired employee working for them.
The mill petition document is by far the oldest known artifact,
May of 1662, of the Stalcop family. Johan Andersson Stålkofta/Staelcop/Stalcop,
the very first Stalcop, held this document in his hands when he
affixed his signature to it.
The Will Of Johan Anderson Stalcop
This Will was written on May 24, 1679 soon after the wedding of Johan
Anderson and Christina Carlsdotter’s oldest daughter to Lylof STIDDEM. The
name of the daughter has never been discovered.
This is the copy recorded in the New Castle County, DE Will books. The
original document has not survived. The original was written by Foppen
Jansen Outhout, a Hollander who first came to the Delaware as a member of
the Dutch invasion force in 1655. He operated a tavern in New Castle.
Later he was called Fop Johnson and he
could read and write in English. English law required all court documents
be written in English. The spelling of names, therefore, has a decided
Dutch cast to them. This has led to a lot of misinterpretations. Of
special note is that neighbor Samuel Peterson, father-in-law to Pietter
Stallcop, signed the Will as a witness.
It is believed John Anderson Stalcop died about July 1685. The Will was
submitted for probate about a year later on July 20, 1686.
PAGE FROM CHURCH
TRANSCRIBED WILL OF JOHN STALCOP
of the will of John Stalcop found in the archives files of Old
Swedes Church (1). Original transcription made
by Ann Lee S. Bugbee, Curator HOLY TRINITY (OLD SWEDES) CHURCH, 606
CHURCH STREET, WILMINGTON, DELAWARE 19801
Transcribed from the will in as faithful a rendering as possible.
Parts difficult to read are bracketed, or where a name is
incorrectly spelled. Other spellings such as their for there and
heirs as heyres have been transcribed as written.
In the name of God, Amen. I, John Stalcop,
of Christina Creke in the counties of New Castle, being weak of
Bodie but of sound and perfect memorie, blessed be the Lord for the
same to make this my last will and Testament as followeth
Imprimis I do freely give and surrender my mortal soul into the
Hands of the Lord God everlasting that gave me Life and being in
this fading and transitory world faithfully hoping and believing
that through the merits of his dear son my only Lord and Saviour
Christ Jesus to find merit with him and. forgiveness for all my sins
for that he laid down his Life and shed his precious blood for the
Redemption of poor man and being in perfect Charitie with all men as
to my outward Estate it hath pleased the Lord to bestow upon me I do
give and bequeath as followeth
I give and bequeath my bodie to the grave to be decently interred by
do give and bequeath unto my dear and loving wife all my Lands,
Howings Ordhards, clear land and meadow withh all and singular the
Appurtinaces during her widowhood but if it so happens that she
marries again then my will is that she have and possess from thence
forward duering her naturall Life only the best Roum in the dwelling
House and one third part of my Lands with the Appurtinaces.
I do give and bequeath to my two sons Jonas Stalcop and Israell
Stalcopp all my Lands, Houses, Orchards, Gardings, Meadows with all
and singular the Apputinaces in the Countie of New Castle after the
Decease of my wife then (m) and their heyre (heirs) for ever to be
equally divided between them and if in case my wife marrie again my
will is that from thenceforward my two sons receive two third parts
of the profit and produce of all my Lands and Appurtaines thereunto
do give and bequeath unto my dear and loving wife one half of all my
goods, Chattells and personal Estate my Debts first paid and funeral
expenses discharged to her own disposing all the rest of my Goods
undisposed of I give and bequeath to my fouer children Jonas Israell
Mary and Christina to be equally divided among them.
My will is that whereas I have given and bequeathed all my land to
my two sons Jonas and Israell that they pay to each of my daughters
Mary Stalcop and Christina Stalcop
Fifty pounds apiece at the age of one Twenty years or when they
marrie may first happen . . . . . . (Line)( Lieu)(i.e. in lieu) of
there share or part of the Land, and if in case it so happen that
either of my two daughters, Mary Stalcop or Christina Stalcop, die
before they attain to the age of Twenty one years or be married that
my sons Jonas and Israell Stalcop pay in consideration of the land
above specified one Hundred pounds to the survivor and if in the
case it so happen that my two sons fail to make the payment of the
Hundred pounds to my two Daighters or the survivor of them have and
enjoy so much of my Land and pemises as may by good omen be thought
and deemed the value thereof to them and their heyres for ever or
until such Time as my sons or either of them make good payments
thereof according to the true intent and meaning hereof.
Lastly my will is that my loving wife and Ericus Bircke (Biorck) the
minister and my trusty friend have the sole care and disposal of my
children during there minorities and I do hareby ordain and appoint
my wife and trusty friend Ericus Bircke minister my sole executrix
and executor of this my last will and Testament and for the more
full confirmation hereof I have herein set my Hand and Seal this
first Day of july Anno Dom 1700
I do hereby
certifie that the within and the above is a true copy compared with
the original given under my hand at New Castle this twenty second
day of March Anno Dom 1735
(1) This original will document was found in a box of Holy Trinity
Church records marked Charles Springer records. There is no
indication of why and how Charles Springer came to have the will in
his possession. According the staff of the Delaware State Archives
in Dover, DL the original will was submitted to the registrar who’s
job it was copy it over into the county will books. After copying
the original document was given back to the person presenting it.
It was Ann Lee S. Bugbee’s opinion that the document was written in
the hand of Charles Springer. She had many other Charles Springer
documents to compare it with.
This will is NOT recorded in the New Castle County will books either
in 1700 when John Stalcop
died or in March, 1735 as noted by the certification of William
The Will Of
This is the copy recorded
in the New Castle County, DE Will books. The original document has
not survived. This Will is believed to have been written by Charles
Springer and possible was submitted to the Court by Springer. This
copy bears his distinctive signature which could only happen if
Springer was present when the will was copied over into the Will
Books. This Will was written on September 3, 1709. Pietter Stallcop
died just two days later on September 5, 1709. His Will was
submitted for probate seven months later on April 10, 1710.
April 19, 1686 d- March 16, 1720 Falun, Sweden
Daughter of Pietter Stalcop and Catherine Samuelsdaughter
Rev. Erik Björk
1712 Portrait by Gustav Hesselius
Gift to Holy Trinity
Church in 1714, Taken to Sweden. Restored 2002. Now on display Delaware
Historical Museum, Wilmington. DE
See The Faces of
Hans Ling, Swedish Colonial Society, Library of Congress 2004114138,
Maria Stalcop’s Journey to Sweden
By Edward Smith*
Maria Stalcop, the youngest daughter of Pietter Stalcop and
Catherine Peterson and the granddaughter of Johan Anderson Stalcop
was married to Johan Van de Veer on the 14th of January 1714. Johan,
whose name soon evolved to “John Vandever“, was from a large,
prominent Dutch family that lived on the north side of Brandywine
Creek, across from the holdings of the Stalcop family. John was
about 25 years old and Maria was 17 years old when they married.
Maria’s sister, Christina, who was eleven years older than Maria,
had married Erik Björk, the Pastor of Holy Trinity Church in 1702
and had already borne him 6 children.
Maria’s brother-in-law, Pastor Erik Björk, was promoted within the
Church in 1712 and directed to return to Sweden. Christina was
apparently somewhat distraught with this turn of events since she
had been born and raised in Delaware and was reluctant to make the
long journey with her young children. She expressed her concern and
later a family friend wrote that she felt it “strange and difficult”
that she must leave “her place of birth and fatherland” and be so
separated from her relatives and friends “---without hope of ever
seeing them again in this life, especially since she was the first
woman to make such a long and difficult journey”. However, women
were generally subservient to the wishes of their husbands in those
days and Christina soon accepted the situation for what it was so
preparations were made for the departure.
It was determined that the party of travelers would consist of Erik,
Christina and their three daughters, Magdalena, Christina and
Catherine and their son, Tobias. Their son Peter and daughter Maria
had died. Also accompanying the travelers would be Maria and
Christina’s cousin, Anna Stidham, the daughter of Luloff Stidham and
Christina Stalcop, the widow of Anders Stalcop who had married
Luloff after Anders death. Anna had lived with the Björks as their
foster child after the death of her parents. The return journey to
Sweden also included a man named Henrik Brunjahn whose function had
been to map and describe the area for the Swedish authorities and
last but not least, Maria Stalcop and her new husband of less than 6
months, John Vandever. There is no factual clue available to help in
determining the reasoning behind Maria’s accompaniment of her sister
on such a difficult journey, but it could have been as simple as to
give companionship and “peace and pleasure” to her sister.
After their protracted goodbyes in New Sweden, Erik Björk and his
party traveled overland to take care of the business of the church
in Philadelphia and then took a carriage to Maryland where they
sailed from America on 29 Jun 1714 aboard the sailing vessel Amity.
The Amity was a ship of 798 tons burden carrying four canons and had
been used as one of the first three ships carrying the Quakers of
William Penn to the area. At was a very sturdy ship. The exact point
of departure in Maryland has not been determined.
After stops in England, and an unscheduled stop at Marstrand, Sweden
caused by bad weather, the ship reached their destination,
Gothenburg, Sweden, on 2 Oct 1714. The Björk family stayed in
Gothenburg a month to rest up from the rigors of the journey and
then continued by horse and carriage for about 80 miles to Jesper
Svedberg’s home in Brunnsbo, the Episcopal residence, just outside
the city of Skara, Vastergotland, the religious center of Sweden
since ancient times. Jesper Svedberg had been Björk’s professor and
mentor in college and was now very highly placed in Swedish
government, religious and social circles.
Some of the Björk children were still sick from the sea journey, so
Björk continued alone on to the city of Falun, a distance of some
200 miles, and sent for them a little later. Erik was given a parish
consisting of three congregations plus an additional congregation
made up of miners working in the huge copper mine located there. The
family soon moved into the former Governors residence on main
street, as befit their rank in society. An educated guess leads one
to believe that Maria and John Vandever were with them all this time
and lived in the same residence, which was a compound consisting of
more than one building.
The activities and whereabouts of Maria and John are not known for
some period of time but they did produce a child, Catherine, who was
christened in Falun on 6 Nov 1715.
Pastor Björk had convinced the Mining Company to donate some gifts
to Holy Trinity Church in America consisting of a still existing
chalice with a paten and a host box of gilded silver. John Vandever
was selected to carry the gifts to America but he suddenly died
before this could happen. cThis fact suggests that John and Maria
had made plans to return to America before his death. After John’s
death Maria married Hans Jürgen Smidt, a hatmaker, on 3 Mar 1720 in
Falun, Sweden. Hans and Marie may have already made plans to go to
America before the marriage since Hans had written a will which he
signed on 15 Mar 1720 and gave to his sister Magdalena for proper
disposition. In this will he basically directs that everything he
might inherit from his father’s will, who had already died (but no
settlement had been made), and also any inheritance from his mothers
will, if she should die in his absence, to his sister, but with the
provision that he could make claim if he returned from America.
On 16 Mar 1720, the very next day after Hans had given his will to
his sister, Maria’s sister Christina suddenly died from
complications of her eleventh pregnancy! Given the state of
pre-natal care and obstetrics in those times, it was probably a
complete surprise when Christina died. This event surely disrupted
the plans of Maria and Hans to make their return trip!
Christina was buried in front of the alter in Christine Church, in
Falun. Erik Björk may have named the church in her honor and he
would be buried beside her when he died. She had been highly revered
by the people of Falun and was given an elaborate funeral on the
12th of April 1720. The funeral was conducted in Christine Church by
Anders Sandal who 18 years earlier had officiated at her marriage in
the Holy Trinity (Old Swedes) Church in Christina, New Sweden. Göta
Rudbeck, a relative of Erik Björk, gave a speech at the funeral and
said among other things:
“There is said to be a land some hundreds of miles from here,
situated westwards, about which I have heard much said, which is
called America. It should be especially loved because of its
fertility, for if what I have heard is true, then there is an
abundance of everything to find so that nothing is missing of that,
which is needed for peace and satisfaction of the mind and to feed
the body and satisfy its temporal needs. In this land she was born,
who now enters this chamber of death to rest her bones.”
Maria was surely in attendance at her sister’s funeral so she and
her new husband, and her daughter, Catherine Vandever, could not
have sailed from Sweden before that date. That she and Hans returned
to Delaware is first shown by the birth record of her first son,
Peter, who was born 12 Oct, 1720 and christened on the 14th of the
same month in Holy Trinity Church, Wilmington, Delaware the event
being duly recorded in the church records. Maria and Hans continued
to produce children on a regular basis having 6 more sons and a
daughter The last born child was named Maria who was born 25 Sep
1740 when her mother was 44 years old.
There are very few records mentioning Maria, who came to be recorded
as “Mary” in later life, but Hans Jürgen (George) Smidt left a
plethora of records during his time in Delaware as a hatter and a
The daughter of Maria and John Vandever, Catherine, returned to
America with her mother and step-father. She married Simon Johnson
from Cecil County, Maryland on 4 Nov 1738. I have not traced her
Maria and Hans Jürgen (George) Smidt’s children:
1. Peter Smith b: 12 OCT 1720 m. Elizabeth Van de Ver
2. John Smith b: 28 DEC 1722 m. Anna Springer
3. Tobias Smith b: 16 MAR 1723/24 m. Mary McDonald
4. FredErik Smith b: 19 SEP 1727 m. Margaret Paulson
5. Andreas Smith b: 14 JAN 1730/31 m. Sarah Gregg
6. Erik Smith b: 31 MAY 1734 m. Brigita Anderson
7. Jonas Smith b: 21 NOV 1737 m. Died young
8. Maria Smith b: 25 SEP 1740 m. Died as an infant.
* Edward Smith
is a direct descendant of Maria and Hans Jürgen (George) Smidt.
Burial Records 1713-65, Holy Trinity (Old Swedes) Church; translated
& edited by Courtland B. & Ruth L.
Springer; p. 199
"Burials in the Year 1753 (Third Book, p. 913) Dec 27 Hans Smidt,
born in Sweden, in Fahlun(sic) Town. Came here to this land in the
year 1720. Was the first ancestor of the Swedish family of Smidt on
the Christiana. Hatmaker. Died of consumption."
In the book "History of the Original Settlements on the Delaware" by
Ferris is a list of some of the oldest stones in the church yard.
Among them is the following:
|"In memory of Mary
Smidt. She was born ye 15th of March, 1697. She went to Sweden
in 1714, and returned in 1721. She departed this life ye 19th
of Nov'r, 1750."
Communicant Records, Third
Book, pg. 913 has the notation that Maria accompanied her
brother-in-law, Provost Björk to Sweden in 1714, was married at
Falun to Hatmaker Hans Smidt, and came back here with him in 1722.
Communicant Records, Second Book, pg 113 show that Hans Smith and
his wife, Maria, were here as early as Oct 1720, and that she was
buried Nov. 19, 1750 as Hans Smidt's wife aged 54 years 10 months.
NOTE: There is about a fourteen-month difference in the age of
Maria at her death between the Communicant Records and her
tombstone. Neither match her date of birth as determined by
baptismal records that falls between the two dates.
There are many large gaps in this record as we begin. These gaps will be
slowly filled in as
we travel along.
John Stalcop, son of Pietter (Peter) Stallcop[i] and Catherine
Samualsdotter, was born probably sometime in 1692. The exact date of
his birth has not been discovered. He likely was the third child of
his parents and born somewhere along Red Clay Creek where his father
had his home.
Nothing is known about his early life but he likely spent it mostly
on his fathers land and in and around his father’s businesses. Peter
owned extensive lands along Red Clay Creek and maintained a farm.
Peter also had a number of water-powered mills, both grist and saw
mills, along Red Clay Creek. A large portion of the land was
probably used to supply raw materials for the mills.
When John’s father died in 1709 he was about seventeen years old. He
received 300 acres of land and also his father’s house upon the
death or remarriage of his mother under terms of his fathers Will.
His mother remarried to Lucas Stedham. It is reasonable to think
that he raised his own family there. His father’s Will also charged
him with helping his brother Andrew with building a home.
Probably sometime in 1711 John Stalcop married Maria Morton,
daughter of Mathias Morton and Anna Gustafsson. Their first child
was born in 1712. Maria Morton was a cousin to John Morton, a signer
of the Declaration of Independence from Pennsylvania. They had a
family of ten children.
On August 28, 1714 there was a general perish meeting of the
congregation of Holy Trinity (Old Swedes) Church. During this
“Christian Joransson and John Stalcop were elected a church watch to
keep good order and propriety both within and without the church
during God’s service.”
Part of their duties as the church watch were described as
“Whenever any one shall be cited before the Church Council it shall
be the duty of either of the designated church watchmen to arrest
him and bring him forward and do whatever else time and
circumstances may render Necessary and proper.” [ii]
During 1715 to 1717 the parsonage of Holy Trinity (Old Swedes)
Church was being built.[iii] At different times members of the
congregation donated materials, time and labor to this project.
Careful records of each such contribution were kept. On August 16,
1715 John Stalcop worked a full day on the well and in 1717 he
helped raise the frame of the kitchen of the parsonage.
On May 7, 1717 the first school in the vicinity of Wilmington got
its start at a congregational meeting of Holy Trinity (Old Swedes).
The new Pastor or Provost, Rev Hesselius, brother to the portrait
painter that created the portrait of John’s sister Christina, wife
of Pastor Björk, transcribed the minutes of the meeting
“The Provost represented the necessity of setting up regular Swedish
school . . . They all seemed to think well of the project, provided
they could agree upon the school place. They thereupon named three
places around which most of the children were to be found. Viz: with
Mr. Springer, John Stalcop and Christiern Brunburg.”
On June 17, 1717 the children were sent to Johan Gustafsson’s [iv]
“. . . the pastor . . . . examined the children as to their
proficiency and then recommended them to Mr. Gioding [the teacher],
the names of which children are here inserted: . . . [no] 7. Peter
Stalcop, Johansson’s son, 5 years old, knows the letters. [no] 8.
Margaretta, the late Peter Stalcop’s daughter, 11 years old, reads
Swedish indifferently well, but must learn to spell anew. . . . “
The Swedish school apparently was a rotating proposition for the
next year it was at John Stalcop’s house. On April 8, 1719:
“The Pastor met with Mr. Gioding and all the scholars in the house
of Johan Stalcop in the presence of most of the parents of the
children, to have a formal closing of the past school keeping.”
In 1724 John Stalcop sold some land located on the east side of Red
Clay Creek to Jonathan Evens. This was the father of Charles Evens,
son-in-law of John Stalcop, who married Ann or Annika, his daughter.
Charles and Ann Stalcop Evens were the parents of the famous
inventor, Oliver Evens.
Apparently John Stalcop and Pastor Samuel Hessellius did not get
along well together. This was probably because the Pastor before
Hessellius was Erik Biörk, John Stalcop’s brother-in-law. Biörk was
well liked by most members of the parish. When he had to leave and
return to Sweden in 1712 it cause quite a stir. Biörk delayed and at
one point even challenged Hessellius’ right to take his place. When
Biörk was finally ordered to end the delay and return to Sweden in
1714 many parish members were reluctant to see him go. For John
Stalcop it likely meant that he might not ever see two of his
sisters, Christina and Maria [v], ever again.
Apparently this situation did not improve with the passage of time.
Finally in 1729 certain members of the parish tried to have
Hessellius removed. They made accusations against him to his
superiors in Sweden. In a letter of September 1, 1729 Hessellius
defended himself. In part he said:
“ . . . Indeed, I have some suspicion too of Mr. Biörk’s brother(s)-in-law.
Hans Smith the hatter, and John Stalcop. who are not the best of
men, and have made themselves my greatest enemies . . . . they are
both very poor writers and weak men, and cannot be credited . . . “
On January 21, 1738 John Stalcop gave seven shillings and six pence
toward payment of the church ground rents (taxes).
In 1744 there was still a controversy over clear title to the glebe
lands. It must have involved the entire Stalcop family because the
Church obtained a release for the land from all male members of the
family including John Stalcop even though it was the land of his
uncle, John Stalcop, and not his father, Pietter Stallcop, that
originally had title to the land.
In 1745 John Stalcop was elected an Assistant Burgess. [vi]
John Stalcop wrote out his Will on October 1, 1748. He stated that
he was he was very sick in body yet he much have recovered to some
extent for he lived for another three years. He died in June 1751
and was buried in the graveyard of Holy Trinity (Old Swedes) Church.
[i] Pietter used the
STALLCOP spelling. Some branches of his descendants still use that
spelling, mostly his descendants currently residing in the State of
[ii] The U S Constitution stripped judicial powers away from all
churches. Church councils could still cite members but they had no
power to punish except for dismissal.
[iii] Although long planned it was never built during Rev. Björk’s
time. Björk made his home at Pietter Stallcop’s home living in an
addition that was added onto the main house. After he was recalled
to Sweden it was apparent that a dedicated parsonage for the new
minister had to be provided. Because of the high risk if fire
kitchens were often in separate buildings away from the main
[iv] The English had great difficulty pronouncing and spelling this
name. Eventually it evolved phonetically into ‘Justice’. John
Stalcop’s wife Maria was the daughter of Annika Justice (Gustafsson)
and Mathias Morton. Johan Gustafsson was Maria’s grandfather.
[v] His sister Christina died in Sweden in 1720. Maria returned to
the New Sweden community very soon after the death of her sister.
[vi] A person with municipal authority or privileges, in particular,
a magistrate or member of the governing body of a town.
Will of JOHN
This will has been transcribed as faithfully
as possible from the Will Book copy of New
Castle County, Delaware. Spelling,
capalitation and punctuation are as in the
original. Alphabetic characters no longer in
use have been rendered into their nearest
present day form. Larry S. Stallcup
In The Name of God Amen I John Stalcop of
Christina hundred in the County of New
Castle upon Dellaware Yeoman; being weak in
Body but of sound memory (Blessed be God) do
this first day of October in the year of our
Lord one thousand seven hundred Forty Eight,
Make & Publish this my Last will & Testament
in manner following (that is to say).
Imp. that I will & order all my just debts &
funeral Charges be paid out of my Moveable
Estate Item I will and bequeath to my wife
Mary Stalcop all my Moveable Goods &
Chattels to be under her management &
command during her Widdowhood, but when she
shall Marry; then I will & order the
overpluss thereof above her lawfull thirds
thereof to be equally devided among my Sons
John & Andrew Stalcop and my daughter Ann
Evens. Item I will & bequeath unto my Son
Peter Stalcop all that Land & Plantation o^n
which he now dwells containing about one
hundred & forty Acres to hold to him his
heirs & assigns forever which bequest on the
Express Condition that he shall pay unto my
son Emick Stalcop the sum of thirty Pounds
Pensylvania money at five years after my
desease and A Like sum of thirty pounds of
like money to my Son [Isreal] Stalcop at
five years after my desease. Item, I will &
bequeath to my Son Matthias Stalcop the sum
of five shillings, Item I will & bequeath to
my son Emick Stalcop one lott of ground
whic[h] be in Newport near the Creek to hold
to him his heirs and assigns for Ever, above
& Ye Bequest above.; Item, I will & bequeath
to my Son Isreal Stalcop more than is to him
above Bequeathed one Lott of ground Sit-uated
in or about Ye middle of Newport, also about
Seven Acres of Marsh behind Newport on
express Condition that he pay to my Daughter
Ann Evens the sum of fifteen pounds of like
money above sd at two years after my desease;
to hold sd Lott & Marsh to him his heirs &
Assigns for ever Item; I do bequeath to my
son Andrew Stalcop all the Land & Plantation
with the Improvements thereon on which I now
dwell containing one hundred and Sixth Acres
more or less on Express Condition that he
pay to my Son John Stalcop the Sum of fifty
pounds like money aboved at three years
after Andrew arrive to Ye Age of twenty one
years, to hold to him his heirs & assigns
for ever _______
Item; I bequeath to my son John Stalcop the
s^d sum of fifty pounds to be paid him by my
Son Andrew as above Conditioned.
And I make ordain & Constitute my wife Mary
Stalcop & my son Peter Stalcop Joynt
Executors of this my last will in [test ?]
for the Intents & Impres[ :es] in this my
Will contained. In Witness whereof I the sd
John Stalcop have to this my last Will &
Testament set my hand and Seal the day and
year above written x x x ----------
Signed, Sealed, Published and
Delivered by Ye sd
as and for his Last will & Testamt
in presents of us - -
Hans G. Sikmuz (?)
Castle II Hanse G. Sikmuz & Garret Farretson
Oaths do say that they were present & saw
Testor John Stalcop sign & Execute the
Instrument of writing & declared it to be
his last will
& Testament he being then of sound mind
understanding & that they together with John
Gillahan give Evidence to ye same as
hand this first day July 1951.
The Stalcop family took part in the mass exodus of
New Sweden families prior to the beginning of the
Revolutionary War. We will generally be moving
along with the members of the family that went
toward the South and passed through North
Carolina. The seventh and eighth generations were
the first to move into the Smoky Mountains.
THE SECOND PETER STALCOP
The second Peter Stalcop in our
line was born in New Castle County, Delaware sometime in 1712. The
actual date has not been discovered. He was the oldest child of ten
children of John and Mary (Maria) Morton Stalcop and the
great-grandson of Johan Andersson Stålkofta. He is the fourth
generation ancestor in our direct Stalcop family line.
There was a community effort to
establish a school. When Peter was age five a school was finally set
up so he was included in the first class. It was held at Johan Gustafason’s home and classes began on June 17, 1717. All of the
students were gathered there but before classes began each student
was examined by the Pastor of the church and then turned over to the
teacher, Johan Andersson Gioding. The Pastor’s record says:
“Peter Stalcop, Johansson’s
son, 5 years old, knows the letters.”
Without doubt Peter was also in
attendance the next school year, 1718, when the classes were held in
his father’s house. There seems to be no record yet found of how far
Peter’s schooling advanced. The traditional standards were that
education ceased at about age twelve for ordinary folks. Only the
clergy, nobility and royalty received higher education.
At the age of 25 Peter married
Susanna Paulson, the daughter of Olof and Elizabeth Anderson
Colsbury Paulson, in Holy Trinity (Old Swedes) Church on December
15, 1737. Susanna was born in late March of 1716 and Baptized April
14, 1716 at the age of three week.
The next record found is a little
over one month after the wedding. Peter contributed five shillings
to the ground rents for the church. His contribution was on January
Peter and Susanna had their first
child, a son, born on April 22, 1739. He was baptized and christened
Johan on April 29, 1739. Their second child, a son, was born on May
27, 1741. He was baptized and christened William on June 27, 1741.
Their third child, a son, was born on August 1, 1743 baptized and
christened Tobias on August 5, 1743.
Peter and Susanna had two children
that, for whatever reasons now unknown, were apparently not baptized
and christened in Holy Trinity (Old Swedes) Church. At least there
is no record of their births in the Church records books. One was a
son named Swithin, born probably sometime about 1747, and the other
a daughter named Rachel, born August 1, 1749.
Their next child, a daughter, was
born on June 11, 1750. She was baptized and christened Lady on July
19, 1750. Later her name became Lydia.
Peter’s father, John Stalcop, died
in 1751. He named Peter as one of the executors of his estate. Peter
inherited 140 acres of land in Christina Hundred from his father as
his share. He and his family were already living on this land so a
house must have been included in the inheritance.
Peter and Susanna had a third
daughter born to them on August 10, 1754. She was baptized and
christened Susannah on September 22, 1754.
Peter and Susanna’s last child, a
son, was born on January 21, 1757. He was baptized and christened
Peter on May 5, 1757. This son is often confused with his nephew,
about six years younger and the son of his brother William Stalcop.
The two boys live on the same farm for a number of years in Orange
County, North Carolina.
Peter is recorded as having died
on July 19, 1768 in Christina Hundred, New Castle County, DE. He did
not leave a will.
All five sons and at least one
daughter of Peter and Susanna Paulson Stalcop migrated to Orange
County, North Carolina. Their daughter Rachel married Isaac Brackin
in Holy Trinity (Old Swedes) Church on August 31, 1769. Theirs is
among the last Stalcop weddings performed there. The Brackins also
migrated to Orange County, North Carolina. Daughter Susannah is
reported to have married James Roney, Jr. and moved to the
Philadelphia area. No record of Lydia is known.
There is no farther record of
Susanna Paulson Stalcop. She disappears from Delaware records and
there has been no record found of her remarrying or of her death. It
seems likely that she moved into Orange County, NC. as a member of
one of her children’s households.
THE GRAND EXODUS
In the late 1760’s there
was a near abandonment of the former New Sweden Colony territory by
all of the early Swedish, Dutch and even a few English families.
There were many reasons but several were pressing. All of the
families were farmers. To be a farmer you have to have sufficient
land to be able to raise crops. After five generations of population
growth the available land had been fragmented into smaller and
smaller plots to the point where it was no long possible to raise
enough food to feed growing families. Piled on top of this was a
massive influx of emigrants into the area. There was a switch in
primary language from Swedish to English and the Swedish ministers
had been withdrawn from the Swedish churches.
All of these things contributed to the Grand Exodus. The families of
the former New Sweden settlers were split during the exodus,
including the Stalcop family. Some of them headed to Ohio and some
to North Carolina.
Soon after the death of Peter Stalcop in Wilmington his son William
sold off the Stalcop family holdings in the area and the family,
plus a most of their neighbors, left the area. There is some
suggestion that the Stalcop family may have been planning the move
before Peter’s death. It appears that two of the Stalcop brothers,
John and Tobias, had become an advanced scouting team. John appears
to have moved his family into Loudon County, Virginia just across
the Potomac River, and Tobias his family into Fredrick County,
Maryland. They may have made brief reconnaissance trips into North
Carolina. At the time both Virginia and North Carolina were offering
free land to anyone who would settle in their territories.
Fredrick Maryland had become perhaps the first of the jumping off
points for wagon trains heading out to settle new territories. There
were two main migration trails from Frederick. One ran westward to
the Pittsburg area and then down the Ohio River. The land Virginia
was offering was mostly in what is now eastern Ohio. The trail
our branch of the Stalcop family, and a number of their neighbors,
took ran south from Frederick toward what is now Richmond, Virginia,
well east of the mountains. From there it continued on south and
took them into Orange County in north central North Carolina.
The Conestoga wagon,
popular for migration, was built in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania.
It was the primary overland cargo vehicle until the development of
the railroad. A team of up to eight horses or up to a dozen oxen
pulled the wagon. People often banded together in long trains of
wagons for mutual support and safety.
The Conestoga wagon was built with its floor curved upward to
prevent the contents from tipping and shifting. The seams and cracks
in the body of the wagon were plied with tar to prevent leaking
while crossing rivers. The body often had outward leaning
sides and ends to resemble a boat shape to aid in crossing over
water. It could carry up to 12,000 pounds of cargo. A heavy canvas
cover for protection against bad weather was stretched across the
top of the wagon on bent wooden ribs. The wagon
frame and suspension were made of wood, while the wheels were
ironrimmed. Water barrels, toolboxes and a feedbox were built
onto the sides of the wagons.
It is likely that the several Stalcop families traveled in Conestoga
built wagons during their migration into North Carolina. A number of
their neighbor families probably also used Conestoga wagons. It has
been estimated that the Stalcop family used four wagons as mobile
living quarters and perhaps four more were used to haul their
belongings during the migration trip. All in all it was quite a long
wagon train. Single file the Stalcop family alone would stretch out
about a quarter of a mile.
THE FIRST WILLIAM STALCOP
The first William Stalcop in
our line, sometime spelled Stalcup, was born in New Castle County,
Delaware, May 27, 1741. He was the second son of Peter and Susannah
Paulson Stalcop, and the fifth generation ancestor in our direct
Stalcop family line. William grew up at a time of great change in
his community. After five generations in one community William led
the second major migration journey in our branch of the Stalcop
There had been a massive influx of new settlers of various
nationalities into the former New Sweden Colony area. The Swedish
community, as a cohesive unit, was quickly becoming Americanized. At
the community’s request the Swedish Lutheran Church had withdrawn
its Swedish-speaking ministers because fewer and fewer people spoke
The switch in languages,
marriages outside of the pure Swedish lines plus remoteness from the
parent Swedish society, were additional forces pulling the community
apart but by far the major force facing the community was the
approaching Revolutionary War. A tremendous amount of political and
religious strife abounded in the area. Neither the Stalcop family,
nor any of the former New Sweden families, had any control or
influence in these events. The many families that had played such a
large part in the development of the entire Delaware Valley area
suddenly found themselves strangers in their own community. Their
way of life was being overwhelmed and submerged by unfamiliar and
out of their control influences.
The very large increase in
population into the area also meant there was a decrease in
available land. The vast majority of the Stalcop family members were
farmers. Their community was being squeezed into smaller and smaller
plots of land scattered here and there over the original New Sweden
territory. It was more difficult for each generation to raise enough
food or even to keep in contact with each other.
Virginia in form of the
Northwest Territories (later Ohio) and North Carolina were offering
free land just for the settlement. These two areas of the country
appeared to provide the same opportunity as had the New Sweden
Colony itself generations earlier. They now had the chance to move
into an entirely new land and start fresh.
Not only did William and his
family leave the former New Sweden territory but virtually the
entire Stalcop family, plus a significant majority of all other
original New Sweden families abandoned the Delaware valley area at
nearly the same time. They split into two large groups. One group
headed for the Northwest Territories, the Ohio River Valley, and the
other group headed south into the central plain of North Carolina.
This became a great exodus of nearly all of the original New Sweden
families away from the New Sweden Colony area.
William and his brothers choose
to head south into what is now central North Carolina. They settled
first in Orange County.
Shortly after William’s father,
Peter Stalcop, died in Wilmington, 1768, William closed out his
father's estate, plus his own including the sale of all of the
property the family owned in and around Wilmington. All members of
his immediate family including all four of his brothers; John,
Tobias, Swithin [Swen] and Peter, and at least one of his aunts,
Rachel, who had married Isaac Brackin, along with their own
families, migrated south into North Carolina. The families of these
five brothers were later to become known as the "Carolina" branch of
the Stalcop family. It has been estimated that nearly one-half of
all present day Stalcop's can trace their lineage through these five
It is not known if William’s
mother, Susanna Paulson Stalcop, made the trip but it seems logical
that she would have moved with all of children and grandchildren.
She disappears from Delaware records and there has been no record
found of her marrying again. There is no record of her death.
That trip must have been quite
an adventure. There were enough of them that they probably made up
their own wagon train. The trail first ran westward through
Lancaster and York in southern Pennsylvania before dipping south
toward Frederick, Maryland. There is some indication that the
families may have paused in southern Maryland or northern Virginia
for a while, perhaps using the area as a rendezvous point, before
heading on to North Carolina, probably in late 1769 or early spring
From Frederick the trail ran
south through mid-Virginia toward Petersburg. Continuing on south
the trail debauched into the central plain of North Carolina. The
entire journey was made in what was then the far western frontier
wilderness of America. It was almost entirely on land occupied and
defended by Indians and populated by a large variety of wild
Orange County North Carolina
encompassed a very large part of the north central part of North
Carolina when the family arrived so the exact spot where they first
stopped is not known for sure. William soon purchased about 320
acres on Stony Creek near the mouth of Jordon Creek. The later sale
of most of this land gives us a description but not the original
date it was purchased.
William and his family lived in
Orange County apparently some thirteen to fourteen years. Most of
the family then packed up and move yet again. This 1783 trip was
probably more difficult and likely more exciting than the earlier
migration. A good deal of it followed the Wilderness Road or the
Daniel Boone Trail.
From Orange County they went west and then
northward and crossed the western tip of Virginia, through the
Cumberland Gap and on over to Barren River in Kentucky. From there
the families turned due south and went into the Goose Creek area of
Davidson County, NC. Today this is Trousdale County, Tennessee.
William purchased a
Revolutionary War Bounty Warrant from a man named William Robb. It
is No.173 and is for 357 acres of land on Goose Creek. Robb signed
over his Warrant to William Stalcop in 1783 without filling in the
day and month. The NC Secretary of State order for the survey to be
conducted in William’s name is dated October 23, 1783. The survey
apparently was finally conducted three years later, October 21,
1786. The track is slightly rectangular with boundaries running
north/south, east/west, and with the creek running east to west
This land was Indian Territory
but the North Carolina Legislature just appropriated it and declared
it open for settlement. Probably it was intend to provide land to
satisfy all of the NC Revolutionary War land bounty warrants.
Earlier treaty agreements did not please all of the Indians so a
split developed. One group elected a war chief named Dragging Canoe
and changed their name to the Chickamaugas. Needless to say this
appropriation of their land did not please the Chickamaugas so they
began attacking the settlers.
Indian attacks continued in the
area until about 1800 but the area had changed. North Carolina,
which had extended from the Atlantic Ocean to the Mississippi River,
was split into two parts. The western part was formed into the State
of Tennessee. When William moved westward he retained ownership of
his land in Orange County. His younger brothers, Peter and Swithin
apparently lived on William’s NC land from arrival but they were
either getting ready to move or they were moving because William was
selling the land. William and Margaret returned to Orange County and
arranged to sell approximately 300 of the approximately 320 acres to
Joseph Ming from Chowan County, NC, for six hundred silver Spanish
Milled Dollars. This sale took place on April 8, 1796. William says
he sold seventeen and a half acres of his original land to his son,
John Stalcup. This was on the south end of the track on the east
side of Stony Creek.
From various land transactions
we know that two of William’s son’s moved eastward out of Tennessee
back into North Carolina at least for a while. Son Peter moved to
Burke County, NC in 1794 and son John moved to Orange County, NC in
1796. We also know that William could write and signed his name to
various documents but Margaret Andersson Stalcop could not sign her
name. She made her mark on the documents. After the sale apparently
William and Margaret returned to their Tennessee home. They appear
to live quietly thereafter.
Works Projects Administration (WPA)
transcription of the
On November 22, 1815 William
wrote out his Will. In it he says that he is infirmed of body but
sound of mind and memory. It is a very simple Will that leaves a
legacy to his granddaughter Margaritt Stalcop without naming which
of his sons was her father. All of his property not disposed of he
leaves for his wife Margaret Andersson Stalcop during her life and
after her death anything remaining is to be divided equally between
his children. The problem is that he names eight of his children but
leaves out the names of three; Mary, Linda and George. William did
not sign the Will but rather made a mark. These anomalies may be a
sign of his infirmity.
William died about age 78 in
1819 and was buried in the Stalcop graveyard. He either did not have
a tombstone or it was somehow destroyed by time. Margaret Andersson
Stalcop lived on for another twenty years and died in 1839 at about
age 94. A large memorial stone for William and Margaret has since
been erected in their memory.
Will of WILLIAM STALCOP//STALCUP
|In the name of
God Amen. I William Stalcup
of the County of Smith and State of Tennessee
being infirmed of body but of sound mind & memory
do make this my Last will and Testament (Viz)
1st That my body be decently buried
2nd That all my just debts be paid
3rd. I give my Granddaughter Margaritt Stalcup
one negro Girl named Lix [Liz ?]
4 It is my will that all my property not otherwise
Disposed of in this my will be given to my beloved
wife Margaret Stalcup during her life and what remains
at her death be Equally divided between all my Children
(to wit) Peter Stalcup, Isaac Stalcup John Stalcup
William Stalcup, Caty Martin Peggy Ausburn [Osborn] Eli
Stalcup Samuel Stalcup
Lastly I appoint my wife Margaret Stalcup & John Bradly
the exectutors of this my will and Testament
Signed in the Presents of us this 22 nd day of November 1815
Test. John Shullow
William Stalcup S(eal)
Will of Swithin Stalcop
Sumner County, TN
WILLS Vol 1 pages 313 & 314
Transcribed by Larry S. Stallcup , August, 2008
The nuncupative will of Swen Stallcup who died on Saturday the 25
day of March in this year of our Lord One thousand and eight hundred
and twenty. We whose names are [undersigned] written being present
some little time before his decease, his desire appeared to be in
the following [vizest] to wit, He being as we believe full in his
seventies –-- Item the first that all his just debts Should be paid
after that being done –-- the balance or residue of his property
both real and personal should remain in the possession of his wife
Barbary Stallcopp during her natural life to raise and school their
children on and that at her death to be equally divided amongst them
all --- the foregoing being the substance of Said Swan Stallcups
request on his death bed --- given under our hands this 30th day of
March in the year 1820. Witness
Swithin Stalcop, often called Swan or Swen.
b- ca 1747 New Casle Co. DE
d- March 25, 1820 Sumner Co. TN
Note the several name spellings: “Stallcup”, “Stallcopp” and “Stallcups”.
Also “Swen” and “Swan”.
A nuncupative will is an oral or spoken will. The witnesses reduce
it to a written document and swear in court that what they wrote is
true and correct.
SHOWING PETER STALCOP’S
Originally in Washington Co. Now in Smyth Co.
Map partially showing 257
acres of land between the South and Middle forks of the
Holston River in southwest Virginia owned by Peter Stalcop (here
spelled Stolkup). It is
on the right hand side of the map. Joining the land on the south
side is tract “P”
owned by Joseph Cole, Jr., which spans the south fork of the Holston
indicates it was the location of a “Loves Mill”. There is an
indication that a road once
crossed the river near the mill. The Cole family and Peter’s family
Larry Spencer Stallcup
Peter Stalcop was born in Wilmington, Delaware, on January 21, 1757.
He was the youngest son of Peter and Susanna Paulson Stalcop and was
baptized in the Holy Trinity (Old Swedes) Church on May 3, 1757.
This Peter Stalcop is often confused with his younger nephew, the
oldest son of his brother William Stalcop. The nephew was six years
younger but both boys named Peter traveled to NC and lived on the
same Orange County, NC farm for a number of years.
Just before Peter reached the age of eleven his father died in
Wilmington. As soon as his father's estate was settled, including
the sale of all of the property the family owned in and around
Wilmington, nearly all of Peter's family, including all four of his
brothers; John, William, Tobias, and Swithin [Swen], and at least
one of his sisters, Rachel, who had married Dr. Isaac Brackin, left
the area. They went south into Orange County, NC. It has been
estimated that nearly one-half of all present day Stalcop's can
trace their lineage through these five brothers.
The exact reasons for so many of the early colonist families leaving
the Wilmington area are not fully known. A great deal of religious
and political strife abounded in the area. The Revolutionary War was
fast approaching. The Swedish Lutheran Churches no longer provided
Swedish-speaking ministers. Fewer and fewer families could speak
Swedish. There were probably many other reasons. Not only did young
Peter and his family leave but the entire Stalcop family, in toto,
plus nearly all of the other original families, both Swedish and
Dutch, abandoned the Wilmington area at about this same time.
Peter traveled as part of one of his older brother's families on the
migration into central North Carolina. It is not known if his
mother, Susanna Paulson Stalcop, made the trip but it seems logical
that if she were still living that she would have moved with her
children. She disappears from Delaware records at this time and
there has been no farther record found of her. There is no record of
That trip must have been quite an adventure for a young boy. The
trail first ran westward through Lancaster and York in southern
Pennsylvania before turning south toward Frederick, Maryland. From
Frederick the trail ran south well east of the Blue Ridge mountain
slopes through mid-Virginia toward Petersburg. The trail debauched
into the central plain of North Carolina. The entire journey was
made in what was then the far western frontier wilderness of the
country on land occupied and defended by Indians and populated by a
large variety of wild animals. Indeed, that trip must have been an
adventurous time for all.
Orange County encompassed a very large part of the north central
part of North Carolina when the family arrived so the exact spot
where they first stopped is not known for sure. Peter's older
brother, William, soon acquired land, 320 acres on the waters of
Jordan Creek, Orange County. This area is now in Alamance County.
Sometime about six years after arriving in Orange County Peter
married. His wife was named Mary but there is no surviving
indication as to her maiden name or exactly when the marriage took
place. The oldest child in the family, judging from later records,
appears to have been born about 1776. This tends to place the
marriage about 1775 when Peter was about age eighteen.
Peter lived on in Orange County, NC then moved his family to
Virginia about the year 1796 when his brother William sold the
Orange County, NC farm where he and his brother Swithin had been
living. He purchased land near St. Clair Bottom, an area in
Washington County (now in Smyth County), Virginia, along the middle
fork of the Holston River in the southwestern tip of Virginia. This
is beautiful rolling valley country between two mountain ridges. It
is ideally suited for farming. Tax records make it clear that Peter
was paying taxes on the land in Washington County from at least 1788
until his death. He does not appear on Virginia federal census
records until 1810. Peter and his family moved to Virginia in
company with the family of Swithin (Swen). The two families appear
to have lived on the same track of Virginia land for a short while
until Swithin moved on to Floyd County, Kentucky about 1797. The two
brothers had been close for forty years.
Peter obtained more Washington County land by purchase. He made a
purchase of a bounty warrant from a man named Robert Preston. This
warrant was for 100 acres. The land was then granted by Washington
County to Peter as Preston's "assignee". The dates on this land
grant have caused a lot of confusion. Because the land transfer was
by an original grant or patent, it is dated back to when the land
first set aside by the State of Virginia to pay the warrant holders;
i.e. back to 1796 in most instances. The next date quoted is when
the land was initially surveyed and these dates generally fall
between 1800 to 1802. A later deed for this first track when Peter
transferred ownership of it to his son John quotes a date of 1801
for the actual purchase.
Peter lived and raised his family along the banks of the Holston
River over the next forty years. He became a fairly large landowner,
successful farmer and businessman in the community. Since there was
no such thing as a banking system then successful people, or perhaps
wealthy people is a better description, filled that roll for the
community. Peter loaned money, at interest, to a large number of his
neighbors, friends and even his sons.
The 1810 Washington County census shows Peter with a wife, one son
and two daughters. The 1820 census shows Peter with a wife, one
daughter and a girl less than 10 years old. Peter was 63 years old
in 1820 and his wife must have been nearly his same age. This makes
it most unlikely the less than 10 years old girl on the 1820 census
could be Peter's child since his wife would be past her
child-bearing age. This means the child was most probably a
grandchild, a child of the daughter still living in Peter's
One of the daughters, Polly Stallcup, married Samuel Cole in
Washington County, Virginia, June 9, 1814. Polly had four Cole
children; Peter [named for Peter Stalcop], Joseph [named
for Samuel's father, Joseph Cole], Elizabeth and Remember, by
Samuel Cole before his death. The name, Remember, may have been a
tribute to the memory of Samuel Cole. Polly Stalcop Cole is reported
to be the same person as the Mary Stalcup Cole who married William
St. Clair in Washington County. Since she had four Cole children it
is unlikely that she is the daughter, with only one young daughter
of her own, living in Peter's household as shown on the 1820 federal
The only female heir reported to be a widow was Elizabeth, the widow
of Robert McBroom. She was the only one of the heirs represented on
the deeds and various other court proceedings relating to Peter's
estate by an attorney, William McBroom, brother to Robert McBroom.
Elizabeth Stalcop McBroom is the leading possibility to be the
daughter with a small child of her own living with Peter and Mary in
Peter died on May 11, 1827 apparently without making out a will. At
least no will was submitted to the court for probate. William
Stalcup was appointed by the Washington County court to be the
administrator to settle Peter's estate. The wording in a passage on
one of the estate documents makes it appear as if William clearly is
the son of Peter's wife, Mary, but creates some doubt that he is
Peter's natural son.
Peter's estate records clearly identify Mary Stalcup as his wife.
Exactly when and where Peter married her is not known. Peter's
marriage to Mary may have deteriorated into a very unhappy one. On
June 22, 1826, there was an agreement negotiated between William
Stalcup, on behalf of his mother, Mary, and Peter Stalcup. This
agreement called for semiannual annuity payments of ten dollars
each, twenty dollars a year, from Peter to Mary for the rest of her
natural life. Divorce in those days took at least an act of the
Virginia General Assembly if it were possible at all.
Most of the Stalcops were Lutheran. Lutheran marriages in North
Carolina and southwestern Virginia were mostly "underground"
affairs. Victory in the Revolution did not bring about instant
freedom of religion in all parts of the country. Local authorities
with leanings toward the Anglican Church often branded Lutheran
ministers were as outlaws on all sorts of trumped up charges. The
only records kept of most Lutheran marriages were in the diaries of
the itinerant ministers performing the marriage ceremonies and can
be found today only if the diary survived. If it were hard to get
married as a Lutheran it would be even harder to get a divorce
dissolving such an "underground" marriage. The annuity agreement may
have been an attempt to settle the fact of Mary’s estrangement from
Peter and may have been an early form of alimony. Peter did not live
long enough to make any of the payments to Mary. A due bill covering
the period up to June 22, 1829, three years plus interest, is
included in Peter's estate settlement record.
The 1830 Washington County census shows Mary 'Stolcop', aged 70 but
not yet 80 years old, living alone. She is listed as head of the
next household after William 'Stolcop' which indicates she lived in
the house next to William. If she were about the same age as Peter
when they married, and she probably was, then she would be about 72
or 73 years old in 1830.
On December 4, 1824, some two and a half years before his death,
Peter made out a deed to John Stalcup for the original track of land
he first purchased in Washington County. This deed was for 95 acres
(this track started out as 100 acres) at the nominal price of two
dollars. Two cents per acre was quite a bargain even for those
times. Just a few years later the rest of Peter's land fetched nine
dollars and acre and that sale was to and among his heirs. This sale
appears to be an advance bequest by Peter to his son, John. This
track almost assuredly contained Peter's dwelling house since the
house is never mentioned in his estate settlement.
Peter left a most unusual estate. It is surprising that Peter did
not make out a will. He seemed to document all of his business
transaction very well and judging from his advanced sale of land to
John Stalcop he seemed to be quite aware of the problems the
settlement of his estate might involve. From the almost hostile
nature of the estate settlement proceedings Peter seems to have been
justified in taking some advance precautions. A most unusual aspect
of his estate settlement is that there are no personal items
included. No jewelry, guns, tools, furniture, dishes, pewter or
clothing are mentioned. This indicates his house and all of his
personal items in it was located on the property he sold to his son
John and it all ceased to be part of his estate.
Aside from the 255 acres of land he still possessed at the time of
his death his estate consisted of the cash equivalent of
$1582.02-1/2. Considering 165 years of inflation this represents an
enormous fortune. With the exception of sixteen dollars in cash
received by the administrator back "from the heirs" the entire
estate consisted entirely of moneys due from loans made by Peter to
numerous people in the community and to various family members. This
also is very strange for it implies that Peter kept no cash reserves
whatsoever, a most unlikely situation. William Stalcup, the estate
administrator, owed Peter's estate nearly one-third of all of the
outstanding money but William included a bill of his own against the
estate claiming Peter had borrowed cash from him! When sold some
three years after his death Peter's land increased his estate value
There were outstanding debts charged against the estate of $924.64.
This included hefty administrators fees that eventually reached a
total of $129.76 collected by William Stalcup. William calculated
the fee by adding together the sum of the assets and the sum of the
outstanding debts of Peter's estate, ignoring the minus sign, and
then taking for himself five percent of the total. The inclusion of
such fees is highly unusual for an administrator who is also an
heir. This fee comes directly out of the portion of the estate which
otherwise would have been distributed to all the heirs on an equal
share basis. In effect William was enriching himself at the direct
expense of his brothers and sisters.
On June 18, 1831 there were two deeds made out disposing of the land
remaining in Peter's estate. One deed is for 25 acres and 60 poles
of land and was purchased by John Stalcup. The second deed was for
230 acres and was purchased by William Stalcup. Both sales were for
nine dollars per acre and both deeds identify the same nine people
as heirs of Peter. Six males were named; William, Isaac, Aaron,
Elias, Moses and John Stalcup. The three females named were;
Elizabeth Stalcup McBroom, widow of Robert McBroom, Mary (Polly)
Stalcup St. Clair, wife of William St. Clair, and Rachel Stalcup
Dungan, wife of George Dungan. It is interesting to note that the
moneys realized by the sale of the two parcels of Peter's land were
not included in with the "Balance due from the administrator to be
distributed among the heirs"
The widow, Mary Stalcup, received nothing from Peter's estate except
what was due her under the earlier annuity agreement. A copy of that
agreement is indicated as being filed with the Washington County
court as part of the estate record but it was not copied over into
the Will Book records. On July 25, 1831 William Stalcup was directed
by the Court to "retain in his hands and loan out, as much money as
will from the interest arising therefrom, pay the said annuity as it
comes due. Upwards of one-half of the net moneys remaining in
Peter's estate would have been necessary for this if it was paid out
of interest earned alone. This court order is the final record of
Peter's estate. There is no record indicating that William ever
distributed the money he retained to the rest of the heirs. Within
the estate records there is a six-dollar bill for Peter's coffin and
a bill for eleven dollar for tombstones. This second tombstone
almost had to be for Mary Stalcop. Peter's tombstone was still
standing in the graveyard of the Old St. Clair Bottom Primitive
Baptist Church in Smyth County, Virginia, in 1984 but there was no
stone standing for Mary Stalcup. The inscription on Peter's stone
departed this life
MAY 11th, 1827 Aged
About a decade later just about all members of this Peter Stalcop’s
family left Virginia and continued their migration, moving mostly to
has been transcribed as faithfully as possible from Deed Book 1, pages
444, Washington County, Virginia.
Copied by : Larry S. Stallcup, May 2, 1992.
(Spelling, punctuation and capitalization are as they are in the
This Indenture made the fourth day of
December in the year of Our Lord one thousand eight hundred and twenty
four between Peter Stalcup on the one part and John Stalcup of the other
part both of the county of Washington and state of Virginia
Witnesseth that the said Peter Stalcup for and
in consideration of the sum of two dollars the receipt whereof the said
Peter Stalcup doth hereby acknowledge. The said Peter Stalcup hath granted
bargained and Sold and by these presents doth grannt bargain and sell unto
the said John Stalcup and his heirs one certain tract or parcel of land
lying and being in Washington County on the ^waters of the middle fork of
holston river Containing Ninety five acres which track was granted to the
said Peter Stalcup by patent bearing date the fourteenth day of April in
the year of Our Lord 1801 and bounded as follows
Beginning at two white oaks corner to Tobias
Pickel and runneth with his line S. 46' E 78 poles to two white oaks on a
ridge N. 85' E 28 poles to a white oak and black oak on Arron Fairchilds
line and with the same N. 36' E 50 poles to a white oak corner to
Fairchild and Robert Gollehon and with Gellehons line N. 15' W 220 poles
to three white oaks corner to Gollehon and Stalcup S.17' W 207 poles to
the Beginning with all its appurtenances
To Have and to Hold
the said track or parcel of land with all its appurtenances unto the said
John Stalcup and his heirs forever and the said Peter Stalcup and his
heirs will forever warrant and defend the said tract or parcel of land
with its appurtenances unto the said John Stalcup and his heirs against
the claims of all persons whosoever In Witness
whereof the said Peter Stalcup hath hereunto subscribed his name and
affixed his seal the day and year first above written
Peter Stalcup L. S.
This Indenture of bargain and sale between Peter Stalcup of the one part
and John Stalcup of the other part was acknowledged in the Clerks office
of Washington County on this 19th day of April 1825 before David Campbell
Clerk of the said county by the said Peter Stalcup as his act and deed and
ordered to be recorded
D Campbell CWC
NOTE: This track of land
was acquired by Peter Stalcup during or after 1801 by right of purchase of
the Bounty Warrant rights of a Robert Preston. Peter Stalcup was Preston's
"assignee". Original warrant was intended to be 100 acres. Track was
originally surveyed October 17, 1796.
The following has been transcribed as faithfully as
possible from Deed Book 2, pages 57, Smyth County, Virginia.
Copied by : Larry S. Stallcup, May 2, 1992.
(Spelling, punctuation and capitalization are as they are in the
This Indenture made this first
day of June Eighteen hundred and thirty onne Between Arron Stalcup and
Mary his wife, Moses Stalcup and Ann his wife Isaac Stalcup and Nancy his
wife and Elias Stalcup and Rany his wife and William Stalcup and Ann his
wife and Elizabeth McBroom wife to Robert McBroom decd and William St
clair and Mary his wife and George Dungan and Rachel his wife heirs of
Peter Stalcup Sr decd of Washinton County State of Virginia of the one
part and John Stalcup heir of Peter Stalcup Deced of the County and State
aforesaid of the other part. Witnesseth that whereas the sd heirs of the
sd Peter Stalcup for and in consideration of the sum of 22 dollars and 25
cts each the receipt is hereby acknowledged in full hath granted bargained
and Sold and by these presents doth grant bargain and sell unto the sd
John Stalcup and his heirs a certain track or parcell of land in
Washington County and State aforesaid lying on the South Side of the
middle fork of Holston river containing Twenty five acres and 60 poles be
the same more or less and bounded as followeth to wit --- Beginning at a
Sower wood on a line between sd John Stalcup and sd Peter Stalcup thence N
8 W 108 1/2 poles to the head of a spring by a road thence N 70 E. 72
poles to Small black oak on a ridge thence S 22 W 133 poles to the
beginning with all its appertainences to have and to hold the sd track or
parcel of land with all its appertainences unto the sd John Stalcup and
his heirs to the sole use and [behaef] of him the sd John Stalcup and his
heirs forever and the sd Arron Stalcup and Mary his wife, Moses Stalcup
and Ann his wife Isaac Stalcup and Nancy his wife and Elias Stalcup and
Rany his wife and William Stalcup Ann his wife and Elizabeth McBroom wife
to Robert McBroom decd and William St Clair and Mary his wife and George
Dungan and Rachel his wife and their heirs will forever warrent and defend
the one ninth part each of the said track or parcell of land with all its
appertenances unto the sd John Stalcup and his heirs against the claims of
all persons whosoever in witness whereof the Said Arron Stalcup and Mary
his wife, Moses Stalcup and Ann his wife Isaac Stalcup and Nancy his wife
and Elias Stalcup and Rany his wife and William Stalcup and Ann his wife
and Elizabeth McBroom wife to Robert Macbroom deced and William St Clair
and Mary his wife and George Dungan and Rachel his wife, haft hereunto
Subscribed their names and affixed their seales this first of June
eighteen hundred and thirty one
Witnesses as to Moses Stalcup
Robert Beatre #
Abram B Trigg #
Joseph Newton #
° Isaac Stalcup seal °
° Elias Stalcup seal °
° William Sinclair seal °
° William Stalcup seal °
° George Dungan seal °
° Mary St Clair seal °
° Rany Stalcup seal °
° Rachel Stalcup seal °
° Ann Stalcup seal °
° Moses Stalcup seal °
° William McBroom seal °